Definition of Tayammum (dry ablution):
Tayammum is a method of purification using clean earth. It replaces both Woudo (partial ablution) and Ghosl (full ablution), but only in special circumstances.
How to perform tayammum
When performing tayammum, one strikes the earth with the hands, spreading the fingers. Then, one wipes one’s face with the palms of the hands, and one wipes one’s hands with the palms of the hands, provided that the face and hands are completely wiped. It is permitted to strike the ground twice, wiping the face after the first strike and the hands after the other. However, the ancient way of performing tayammum is the one authentically recounted as having been observed by the Prophet (as) (Sahih Al-Bukhari 338).
Find clean soil. Find a place where there is dirt, sand or rock. Make sure this place is clean and entirely free of any najasah (things that make a person ritually unclean).
While performing the Tayammum, it is necessary to make one’s intention (niyyat) in your heart. You must prepare yourself mentally to perform an act of purification.
Say Bismillah. Recite bismi-llāhi ar-ra māni ar-ra īmi (In the name of Allah, the Merciful, the Merciful).
Clap your hands on the ground. This act will most likely stir up dust. Brush it out and gently scrub your face with your hands, starting (as in Wudu) from the hairline to where the facial hair begins, and from one earlobe to the other.
Clap your hands on the floor again. Brush off the dust and interlace the fingers of both hands. Using your left hand, rub your right arm from the fingertips to the elbow, then back up along the inside of the arm to the fingertips. Repeat this for your left arm.
Finish with the Douaa
Ashhadu an laa ilaaha ill-Allah wahdahu laa shareeka lah, wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa rasooluhu (I testify that there is no god but Allah alone, without partner or partner, and I testify that Muhammad is His slave and messenger).
Allaahumm aj alni min al-tawwaabeena waj alni min al-mutatahhireena (O Allah, make me one of those who repent and make me one of those who purify themselves).
What type of soil to use for Tayammun
It must be pure earth: it can be sand, stone, gypsum, etc. Allah Almighty says in the Quran (meaning): “…Perform Tayammum with pure earth…” [Quran 5:6]
Evidence from Quran and hadith on tayammum
This act of ritual purification is proven by the Koran, the Sunnah (prophetic tradition) and the Ijmaa’ (consensus of Muslim scholars).
Allah Most High says: “O believers! When you get up for Salat, wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows; pass wet hands over your heads; and wash your feet to the ankles. And if you are polluted “junub”, then purify yourselves (by a bath); but if you are sick, or on a journey, or if any of you return from the place where he relieved himself, or if you touched women and found no water, then resort to the pure land. , apply it to your face and hands. Allah does not want to impose any embarrassment on you, but He wants to purify you and perfect His blessing upon you. Perhaps you will be grateful”. [Quran 5:6]
“…. If you are sick or on a journey, or if any of you return from the place where he relieved himself, or if you touched women and you could not find water, then resort to a pure land, and do without it on your faces and on your hands. Allah, verily is Forgiving and Forgiving.” Surah Annissa – Women [Quran 4:43]
Proofs from the Sunnah
From the Sunnah we have the hadith narrated by Abu Umaamah that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “The whole earth has become a pure place of prayer for me and Whenever a person from my nation wants to pray, it has something with which to purify itself, that is to say the earth. [Imam Ahmad]
Narrated by Abdur Rahman bin Abza that Ammar said to Umar “I rolled around in the dust and came to see the Apostle of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) who said: ‘Passing the dusted hands over the face and the back of your hands are enough for you. » [Sahih Bukhari]
Narrated by Ammar: that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) stroked the earth with his hands and then passed them over his face and the back of his hands (while demonstrating Tayammum). [Sahih Bukhari]
When to do tayammum
It is permissible to do Tayammum in any of the following cases:
1 – If no water is found or if the quantity found is insufficient for ablution
Narrated by ‘Imran Ibn Husayn: “We were with the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) on a journey. When leading the people in prayer, one man stayed away. The Messenger of Allah (as) asked him: “What prevented you from praying? He replied, “I need a ritual bath (because I had a wet dream) and there is no water. The Messenger of Allah (as) said: “Use the ground, for it is sufficient (i.e. Tayammum). » [Sahih Bukhaari & Muslim]
2 – If you are injured or sick
If someone is injured or ill and thinks that using water will make their illness worse, they can perform Tayammum.
According to Jaabir, “We were on a trip and one of us was injured. Later, he had a wet dream. He asked his companions, ‘Can I perform Tayammum?’ They said, ‘No, not if you have water.’ He performed Ghusl, which caused him to die. When the news of this reached the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him), he said: “They killed him! May Allah kill them! Don’t you ask if you don’t know? The cure for ignorance is to ask. He could have executed Tayammum and not dropped water on his wound, or wrapped him with something, then wiped off the wrapping, then washed the rest of his body. »
3 – If the water is cold enough to physically injure the user
Tayammum is permitted when water is available but is too cold and cannot be heated, or there are no public toilets available.
Narrated by Abu Dharr that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Soil is a purifier for a Muslim, even if he finds no water for ten years. So if he finds water, i.e. for ablution, etc., it is his responsibility to use it. [Imam Ahmad & At-Tirmithi]
4 – If there is water nearby, but we cannot get it out of fear
If someone fears for his life, his family, his wealth (for example, if an enemy (beast or human) is nearby or if one is a prisoner, etc.), he can perform Tayammum. This is also allowed if there is water but you cannot afford it.
5 – If you keep your water for later use
Imam Ahmad may Allah have mercy on him said: “Many companions performed Tayammum to save their water for drinking. »
6 – If someone can get water, but fears that the prayer will be over by the time he gets it
He can perform Tayammum and pray, and does not need to repeat his prayer (after getting water).
Things nullifying Tayammum
- Whatever minor ritual impurity nullifies ablution (such as stool, urine, wind, etc.) nullifies tayammum.
- Whatever major ritual impurity that requires ritual bathing (such as janabah, menstruation, and bleeding) negates tayammum. The act of substitution (i.e. tayammum) takes the same rules as the original act (i.e. ablution and ritual bath).
- When water is found (in case tayammum is performed due to lack of water).
- When there is no longer a legal excuse such as illness and the like.
Linguistically, the word “tayammum” in Arabic means intention, and legally (according to Islamic rules) it means wiping your face and hands with clean dirt in a specific way. The Tayammum is enunciated in the Noble Quran, prescribed in the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition) and approved by consensus. Tayammum is a privilege that Allah, by His grace and mercy, has specified for the purity of the nation of Prophet Muhammad (as) to make things easier for them.
Tayammum is a substitute for purification with water in case one is legally unable to use it. Purification with tayammum also allows a Muslim to perform all acts of worship that require ablution with water, such as prayer, tawaf (circumambulation of the Ka’bah), recitation of the Noble Quran, etc. . This is because tayammum was decreed by Allah as a legal substitute for water purification.